Sunday, October 05, 2014

Strategies for Cracking UPSC-IES, GATE Exams

Ever since I have cracked (IES: AIR 14, GATE: Rank 64) these two sacred exams for Engineers, I feel contented as far as clearing exams are concerned. But I have learnt a lot from the competition inherent in these exams. Lacs of candidates, millions of coaching institutes and zillions of aspiring souls in the form of parents of these candidates. These parents spend lacs on the coaching of their budding engineering sons/daughters just to satisfy themselves that they have done their duty. 

According to me, if a candidate has completed his engineering or if candidate is a final year student of Engineering - Coaching is not required atleast for cracking GATE or IES !!

GATE: Its an aptitude exam for checking that graduates have acquired requisite skills expected from an qualified Engineer. 

IES: Its a comprehensive exam which checks the ability of graduates to take up Group A Services of Govt of India. It is more than aptitude exam and to me it appears to me as attitude exam. Exams continues for 3 days and 5 papers - take a toll on aspirants.

Strategies for cracking these exams-

  • Analyse the syllabus- You are not supposed to do Phd in Engineering but you need to know about the syllabus. Going through the syllabus in the first go defines your territory and makes you comfortable. Explode the possible contents under particular topic and make a comprehensive syllabus (customized) for you for the whole exam.

  • Analyse Past Year Question Papers: Next Step should be analyzing the past question papers because this defines the lanes in the defined territory in the syllabus zone. There must be any roads frequently traveled and many less traveled. But you have to travel according to your comfort. Where and how deep to go in the particular lane depends on the number of questions and frequency on the particular topic corresponding to the lane. This exercise is necessary just to avoid entering into cul-de-sac simply because it is waste of time and you will have to come back on the same road leading to wastage of time.

  • Analyse Toppers marks: This is most important step as this would define which hotel to chose to stay and for how long in the lanes of defined territory discussed above. Here you would find that a topper with rank 5 has scored 150 in GAT & Interview with very less marks in other papers and similarly you would also find toppers with very less marks in GAT but very high marks in Conventional. Top 20 marks mix is quite interesting and you have to identify your pattern from this. 

  • Define your Plan , Time Table : With this much up your sleeves, define your plan and make a comprehensive time table by dividing entire syllabus into small modules & start preparing according to the defined plan. 
With this strategy, you would maximize your strengths and crack the exam according to your wish. 


Wednesday, October 01, 2014

Elements of Computation for IES -Dbase-III

DBASEIII COMMANDS -Notes

Database Organization: SORT, INDEX
SORT Command
·   The SORT command gives us the ability to copy the record and structure of a database to another database.
·   Files can be arranged in either ascending order or descending order by using SORT command.
·   Sort command can be used in multiple fields for data arrangement.
·   SORT command creates a new database file. But the new file contains records of the original database file only the order is different.

INDEX command
·   Index command can also be used to organize a data file. When you index a database, you ask dBASE to create a separate and smaller file based upon designated fields in the database.
·   The index command does not create a new database file. It creates an index file for the database with a default extension (.NDX).
·   Unlike SORT command however INDEX does not permit the user to arrange the data in descending order

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SORT AND INDEX COMMAND
Sort Command
Index command
· Creates a new database file
Does not create a new file
· Arranges the records in ascending and descending order
Arranges the records only in ascending order
· File extension is .DBF
File extension is .NDX
· Slower than index command
Faster than   sort command
· Renumbers records
Does not renumber records

FIND and SEEK Commands
·   The FIND and SEEK commands both are used in indexed database.
·   FIND operates with character strings, while SEEK operates with either character string or numeric values.
·   The SEEK command like FIND command also works only with an index file. When you SEEK command with strings, you must use quotes.

COUNT Command
·   The COUNT command helps in finding the number of records in the active database that meet a given condition.

LOCATE Command
·   The LOCATE command is used to find the records in a database which satisfy certain conditions.

The Record Pointer
How did the EDIT command display only the 5th record? This can be explained by the concept of a record pointer that is maintained for each file opened by dBASEIII+.

GOTOLISTEDIT

REPLACE

The REPLACEcommand is used to REPLACE the contents of one or more specified field either the current record or all record, depending on the form of the command.

BROWSE Command
BROWSE command gives an option of adding new records. The BROWSE command also provides the option of displaying and modifying selective fields

MODIFY STRUCTURE
The MODIFY STRUCTURE command helps to change the structure of an active database file. The command:

DELETE & PACK
·   The delete command marks the current record for deletion
·   Now delete all the records in the active database file BIODATA. You will find an asterisk (*) against the records marked for deletion.
·   PACK CommandThis command removes records permanently from the database file. Once packed a record cannot be recovered. Deleting records in dBASEIII+ is a two step process. The records are first marked for deletion with the DELETE command, and then removed permanently from the file by PACK command

Let us take the following example
. USE BIODATA
. DELETE 3
. PACK
Next if you give LIST command then you will not find record 3 in database.

RECALL Command
The RECALL command is used to unmark those records that were marked for deletion with DELETE command. Like DELETE command, RECALL has several forms.

SELECT command
To allot work areas for different files in dBASE. dBASE assigns numbers 1 to 10 or characters A to J to these work areas. The general form of the SELECT command is

.SELECT workarea
.USE filename

ALIAS Names for Database Files
dBASE has got a facility to give an alternate or an ALIAS name to a database file dB1

The SET RELATION TO Command
This command is used to link two database files with or without a common field between them

ACTIVE AND NON-ACTIVE FILES
When several files are in use by the SELECT command, the file that is selected last is called the active file and other files are called non-active files

1.       How many databases can be used simultaneously in dBASE III+?  10 DATABASES
2.       Give the name of the first work area used in dBASE III+. A
3.       Which command is used to select a work area in dBASE III+?   SELECT
4.       Differentiate between active and non-active files.
5.       Choose the correct answer:
(a) What is the maximum number of work areas that can be used in dBASE
       (i) 20               (ii) 10              (iii) 5       (iv) 9
(b) The first work area in dBASE is referred as
       (i) W -area   (ii) ‘A’             (iii)  ‘A-J’  (iv) none of the above

Answers
1.  10 databases
2.  The first work area in database is A.
3.  SELECT command
4.  The file that is selected last is called the active file and other files are called non-active files.
5.   (a)  ii  (b)  ii

Questions

1.  Which command is used for report creation?
2.  What are the sub-menus of COLUMNS menu?
3.    Choose the correct answer
    (a) The extension name for Report file is
       (i)  .NDX    (ii) .DBF  (iii) .FRM (iv) .PRG
    (b)  How many items dBASE displays in the main menu of Report generation?
       (i) 2    (ii)  7(iii) 5  (iv)  none of the above

Answers
1.  CREATE or MODIFY commands are used in report creation.
2.  Contents, Heading, Width, Decimal places, Total This Column are five sub menus of COLUMNS menu.
3.  (a) iii      (b) iii

WAIT COMMAND

The WAIT command suspends processing of a program and waits for the user to press any key. It accepts only a single keystroke and does not require the ENTER key to be pressed.